Head and neck surgery is a subspecialty that provides advanced surgical care for the head, face, neck, and throat. Most head and neck surgeons begin their careers as otolaryngologists (ENTs) or plastic surgeons, but becoming certified as a head and neck surgeon requires additional training.
A surgeon who treats the head and neck has very specific considerations to take into account when operating. The delicate structures of the head and neck control our senses, our speech, our ability to chew and swallow food, and even our ability to breathe. A head and neck surgeon has to be careful to preserve the many functions of the head and neck when performing an operation. Also, when operating on or around the face, extreme care must be taken to leave as few scars as possible, since the face is a critical part of identity and social interaction. It all adds up to a tricky job.
Some of the issues a head and neck surgeon might treat include:
Trauma to the face or neck
Thyroid disorders requiring surgery
Tonsillectomies / adenoidectomies
Cleft palate repair
Disorders of the larynx (voice box)
Cancers, especially of the esophagus, mouth, lips, and skin around the face or throat, are one of the most common issues requiring head or neck surgery. Most often, head and neck cancers are related to tobacco use. Chewing tobacco in particular affects the lips and mouth. Other risk factors for head and neck cancers include alcohol use and sun exposure.
Often after surgery, but particularly after the removal of a tumor, head and neck surgeons will perform reconstructive surgery, including microvascular surgery to connect or replace skin tissue. The goal is to restore not only a patient’s function but also their appearance in this critical area of the body, improving self-esteem.
What is Endocrinology?
Endocrinology is a medical specialty that deals with glands and hormones. Hormones are substances that act like chemical messengers between parts of the body. They are produced by glands, and travel in the bloodstream throughout the body where they act on different organs and cells to affect many different functions of life. Hormones control our appetite, growth, reproduction, and energy. When there is too little or too much of a hormone, an endocrinologist can help restore the balance.
Endocrinology problems are sometimes difficult and complex because hormones travel throughout the body and can affect more than one system. A single, simple imbalance can produce multiple, very different symptoms. Just a few of the diverse diseases treated by an endocrinologist include:
Diabetes (where insulin is not produced in the body or is not working well, and blood sugar levels rise, which damages tissues)
Hypothyroidism (where thyroid hormones are not produced well, reducing cell metabolism and energy)
Precocious Puberty (where reproductive hormones are produced too early in a child’s life)
Gigantism (where growth hormones are overproduced, leading to unusual size)
Endocrinology can contain subspecialties where physicians focus their care on specific groups of patients. For example, some endocrinologists are diabetic endocrinologists who know specifically how to care for diabetics’ particular needs in eye care, circulation, and foot care. Pediatric endocrinologists treat children. Whatever their subspecialty, all endocrinologists have the same goal: restoring balance when the body’s messaging system is not working correctly.
What is Pediatric Endocrinology?
Hormones are chemicals that are produced by the body and flow through the bloodstream. They control a number of important functions, including growth, metabolism, and sexual development. Doctors that treat hormonal problems are called endocrinologists, and endocrinologists that work with children are pediatric endocrinologists.
Pediatric endocrinologists treat children of all ages, from newborn babies to young adults. Because hormones affect growth and sexual development, endocrine disorders affect children and teens very differently than they do adults. Some disorders, such as precocious (early) puberty, only affect children. Some endocrine disorders have different symptoms in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. A pediatric endocrinologist must be aware of how hormonal problems specifically affect children’s health and development.
Diabetes, a disease caused by problems with the hormone insulin, is the most common disorder treated by pediatric endocrinologists. Other issues include:
Growth disorders, which prevent children from growing or maturing as expected
Pituitary or adrenal disorders
Sex hormone disorders, where the body produces either too little or too much of the hormones that affect puberty and sexual development
Intersex, a group of conditions that make a person's sex unclear
Vitamin D deficiency
Problems with calcium metabolism
Treatment for transgender children, who feel they do not match the gender associated with their external genitalia (many, but not all, pediatric endocrinology offices provide this service)
For most endocrine disorders, treatment involves medication taken to either supplement or suppress certain hormone levels.
Since hormones control so many functions within the body and are so crucial during the early stages of life, an endocrine disorder can be devastating for a child. Pediatric endocrinologists help get your child’s hormones back in balance.
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